The Impact of Role Conflict Originating from Mid-Level Manager Actions on Intention to Leaving the Job and Performance
This study aims to reveal the effect of role conflict and role ambiguity arising from mid-level manager actions on the turnover intension and job performance. Another aim of the study is to contribute to the limited literature available on med-level management and managers especially in our country through the variables examined. A survey-based method was used in the study. The prepared questionnaire was sent to academic and administrative staff working as mid-level managers at two public universities. The item form used in the study was created by bringing together questions from different scales. The explanatory factor analysis was applied to investigate the construct validity and the factor structure of the items was revealed. Alpha model was used to determine the reliability of the scale.No significant evidence has been found as to whether the actions of mid-level managers interacting with many units and person due to their position in the organization will affect the role conflict. For role ambiguity, as claimed in the study hypothesis, mid-level manager actions have an increasing effect on role uncertainty. In the third and fourth hypothesis of the study, the effect of role conflict on the turnover intention and organizational performance, respectively, was investigated. Accordingly, role conflict positively affects turnover intention. However, there is no significant evidence for the effect of role conflict on performance. It is an interesting finding that the role conflict has no direct effect on performance as a result of the research. The implication is that to improve business performance, it is necessary to be informed about mid-level manager actions before reducing role conflict. Because reducing role conflict does not directly increase performance. Role ambiguity positively affects to turnover intension; it affects business performance negatively. It has been demonstrated that the role conflict and role ambiguity increased the turnover intention, while the increasing turnover intention has turned into behavior, resulting in an increase in the turnover rate, which is the result of absenteeism and walk-out. The loss of individuals, who are shown as the strategic source of today's organizations, will add extra costs to the organization. In this sense, in order to eliminate or reduce the negative consequences of role conflict and role ambiguity, it is very important to use communication channels within the organization at the maximum level, to include clear expressions in the given messages, and to bring the mid-level managers as close as possible to the decision-making processes.
Abramis, D. J. (1994), Work Role Ambiguity, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance: Meta-Analyses and Review, Psychological Reports, 75(3), 1411–1433.
Aldag, R.J., & Brief, A.P. (1978), Examination of Alternative Models of Job Satisfaction, Human Relations, 31(1), 91–98.
Anicich, E.M., & Hirsh, J.B. (2017), The Psychology of Middle Power: Vertical Code-Switching, Role Conflict, and Behavioral Inhibition, The Academy Of Management Review, 42(4), 659-682.
Bailey, R. (1981), Multiple Ministries and Ordination, Review & Expositor, 78(4), 531-537.
Bannister, B.D., & Griffeth, R.W. (1986), Applying A Causal Analytic Framework to the Mobley, Horner, and Hollingsworth (1978) Turnover Model: A Useful Reexamination, Journal of Management, 12(3): 433–443.
Behrman, D.N., Perreault, W.D. (1984), “A Role Stress Model of the Performance And Satisfaction of Industrials Salespersons”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.48 (Fall).
Bedeian, A.G., & Armenakis, A.A. (1981), A Path-Analytic Study Of The Consequences Of Role Conflict And Ambiguity, Academy Of Management Journal, 24(2), 417-424.
Bedeian, A.G., Armenakis, A.A., & Curran, S.M., (1981), The Relationship Between Role Stress And Job-Related, Interpersonal, And Organizational Climate Factors, The Journal Of Social Psychology, 113(2), 247–260.
Biddle, B.J., (1986), Recent Developments İn Role Theory, Annual Review Of Sociology, 12, 67-92.
Birnbaum, D., & Somers, M.J., (1993), Fitting Job Performance İnto Turnover Model: An Examination Of The Form Of The Job Performance-Turnover Relationship And Path Model, Journal Of Management, (49), 1-11.
Cokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012), Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik, Spss Ve Lisrel Uygulamaları, Pegem Akademi, Ankara.
Dozier, D.M. (2005), İletişim Ve Halkla İlişkiler Uygulayıcılarının Örgütsel Rolleri, Der: James E. Grunig Vd., Halkla İlişkiler Ve İletişim Yönetiminde Mükemmellik, Rota Yayın Dağıtım Tanıtım, İstanbul, 349-377.
Dubinsky, A.J., Ronald. E., Kotabe, M., Lim C.U., & Moon, H. (1992), Influence Of Role Stress On İndustrial Salespeople's Work Outcomes İn The United States, Japan, And Korea, Journal Of International Business Studies, 1st Quarter, 23(1), 77-87.
Dutton, J.E., Ashford, S.J., O’neil, R.M., Hayes, E., & Wierba, E.E. (1997), Reading The Wind: How Middle Managers Assess The Context For Selling İssues To Top Managers, Strategic Management Journal, 18 (5), 407-425.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention, And Behavior: An Introduction To Theory And Research. Reading, Ma: Addison-Wesley.
Floyd, S.W., & Wooldridge, B. (1992), Middle Management İnvolvement İn Strategy And İts Association With Strategic Type: A Research Note, Strategic Management Journal, 13: 153-167.
Floyd, S.W., & Lane, P.J. (2000), Strategizing Throughout The Organization: Managing Role Conflict İn Strategic Renewal, The Academy Of Management Review, 25(1), 154–177.
Fisher, R.T. (2001), Role Stress, The Type A Behaviour Pattern, And External Auditor Job Satisfaction And Performance, Behavioral Research İn Accounting, (13), 132-143.
Fried, Y., Ben-David, H., & Ailan, V.D. (1998), The İnteractive Effect Of Role Conflict And Role Ambiguity On Job Performance, Journal Of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, March, 71(1), 2-19.
Gamgam, H., & Altunkaynak, B. (2012). Parametrik Olmayan Yöntemler, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara.
Goode, W. (1960), A Theory Of Role Strain, American Sociological Review, 25, 483-496.
Gökce, Ş. (2019), Orta Düzey Yönetim/Yönetici Üzerine Bir Literatür Araştırması, Business And Economics Research Journal, 10 (5), 1155-1166.
Gregson, T., & Wendell, J. (1994), Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, Job Satisfaction And The Moderating Effect Of Job-Related Self-Esteem: A Latent Variable, Journal Of Applied Business Research (Jabr), 10(2), 106-113.
Griffeth, R., Hom, P.W., Gaertner, S. (2000), A Meta-Analysis Of Antecedents And Correlates Of Employee Turnover: Update, Moderator Tests, And Research Implications For The Next Millennium, Journal Of Management, 26(3):463-488.
Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1998), Multivariate Data Analysis, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Hales, C. (2001), Does It Matter What Managers Do?, Business Strategy Review, 12: 50-58.
Hom, P.W., Griffeth, W.R. (1995), Employee Turnover. Cincinnati, Oh: Southwestern College Publishing.
Honea, S.M. (2000), The Impact Of Professionalism On Library Administration, Journal Of Library Administration, 31(1), 1–28.
Huy, Q.N. (2002), Emotional Balancing Of Organizational Continuity And Radical Change: The Contribution Of Middle Managers, Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(1), 31–69.
Ivancevich, J.M., Matteson, M.T., & Preston, C. (1982), Occupational Stress, Type A Behavior, And Physical Well Being, Academy Of Management Journal, 25(2), 373-391.
Jackofsky, E.F. (1984), Turnover And Job Performance: An İntegrated Process Model, The Academy Of Management Review, 9(1), 74-83.
Jackson, S.E., & Schuler, R.S. (1985), A Meta-Analysis And Conceptual Critique Of Research On Role Ambiguity And Role Conflict İn Work Settings, Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 36: 16–78.
Kacmar, K. M., & Ferris, G.R. (1989), Theoretical And Methodological Considerations İn The Age-Job Satisfaction Relationship, Journal Of Applied Psychology, 74(2), 201-207.
Katz, D., Kahn, R.L. (1978), The Social Psychology Of Organizations, Wiley, New York.
Koslowsky, M., Sagie, A., Krausz, M., Dolman, A. (1997), Correlates Of Employee Lateness: Some Theoretical Considerations, Journal Of Applied Psychology, 82(1). 79-88.
Likert, R., (1961), New Patterns Of Management, New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Nandram, S.S., Klandermans, B. (1993), Stress Experienced By Active Members Of Trade Unions, Journal Of Organizational Behavior, 14(5), 415–431. Doi:10.1002/Job.4030140504.
Pappas, J.M., & Wooldridge, B. (2007), Middle Managers’ Divergent Strategic Activity: An Investigation Of Multiple Measures Of Network Centrality. Journal Of Management Studıes, 44(3), 323-341.
Rawlings, J.O., Pantula, S.G., & Dickey, D.A. (1998), Applied Regression Analysis: A Research Tool, 2nd Edition, Springer, Berlin.
Rizzo, J., House, R., & Lirtzman, S. (1970), Role Conflict And Ambiguity İn Complex Organizations, Administrative Science Quarterly, 15(2), 150-163.
Sayles, L.R. (1993), A Different Perspective On Leadership: The Working Leader, Leadership İn Action, 13(1), 1–5.
Shi, W., Markoczy, L., & Dess, G.G. (2009), The Role Of Middle Management İn The Strategy Process: Group Affiliation, Structural Holes, And Tertius İungens, Journal Of Management, 35: 1453-1480.
Sieber, S.D., (1974), Toward A Theory Of Role Accumulation, American Sociological Review, 39(4), 567-578.
Stein, A. (1982), Coordination And Collaboration: Regimes İn An Anarchic World, International Organization, 36(2), 299-324.
Stumpf, S.A., & Rabinowitz, S. (1981), Career Stage As A Moderator Of Performance Relationships With Facets Of Job Satisfaction And Role Perceptions, Journal Of Vocational Behavior, 18(2), 202-218.
Tubre, T.C., & Collins, J.M. (2000), Jackson And Schuler (1985) Revisited: A Meta-Analysis Of The Relationships Between Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, And Job Performance, Journal Of Management, 26(1) 155-169.
Van De Vliert, E. (1981), Siding And Other Reactions To A Conflict: A Theory Of Escalation Toward Outsiders, Journal Of Conflict Resolution, 25(3), 495-520.
Venkatraman, N., (1989), The Concept Of Fit İn Strategy Research: Toward Verbal And Statistical Correspondence, The Academy Of Management Review, 14(3), 423-444.
Vuori, T.O., & Huy, Q.N., (2016), Distributed Attention And Shared Emotions İn The İnnovation Process: How Nokia Lost The Smartphone Battle, Administrative Science Quarterly, 61(1):9–51.
Walker, O.C., Churchill, G.A., & Ford, N.M. (1975), Organizational Determinants Of The Industrial Salesman’s Role Conflict And Ambiguity: The Right Organizational Structure And Supervisory Style Can Help Salesmen Understand Their Jobs, But They Don’t Reduce The Conflicts Experienced By Salesmen, Journal Of Marketing, 39(1), 32-39.
- Şu halde refbacks yoktur.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.