MÖ 2. Binyıl Mezopotamya Devlet ve Toplum Hayatında Tahılın Yeri

Mehmet Kurt, Esra Atcı

Özet


Fırat (Purattu)ve Dicle’nin (Idiglat) sularıyla bereketlenen Mezopotamya Bölgesi sebze ve diğer ürünlerde olduğu gibi tahıl üretiminde de oldukça önemli bir yere sahip olmuştur. Her ne kadar sözü edilen nehirler Mezopotamya için büyük bir önem arz ediyor olsa da bölgenin kuzeyi ve güneyi bu nehirlerden aynı oranda istifade edememiştir. Zira Mezopotamya’nın kuzeyinde inşa edilen kanal sistemi yetersiz kalmış ve kuru tarım yöntemiyle tahıl üretimi yapılmıştır. Bölgenin güneyinde ise sulama kanalları üretim artışında büyük bir avantaj sağlamıştır. Mezopotamya için tahıl tarımının büyük bir önem arz ettiği hem yazılı kaynaklar hem de arkeolojik buluntular vasıtasıyla takip edilebilmektedir. Bu bağlamda MÖ 2. binyılda Lipit-İštar, Ešnunna, Hammurabi ve Orta Asur dönemi kanunları tahıl üretimi ile satışını kontrol ve koruma altına almıştır. Ayrıca gerek önemli Mezopotamya şehirlerinin kendi aralarında ve gerekse Mezopotamya ile diğer bölgeler arasında tahıl ticaretinin ve taşımacılığının yapıldığına dair kayıtlar mevcuttur. Tahıl alım satımında saray kronikleri büyük bir önem arz etmektedir. Mezopotamya’da tahılın üretimi ve ticaretinde olduğu gibi depolaması da önemli bir konu olmuştur. Tahılın depolanmasında Mezopotamya’nın coğrafi koşullarının belirleyici bir rol oynadığı ve başka bölgelere göre farklılıklar arz ettiği de anlaşılmaktadır. Zira toprak zemin üzerine yapılan bir platformun üstüne inşa edilen silindir formdaki depolar tahılı, kemirgen, haşere ve nemden korumada büyük bir avantaj sağlamıştır.

Bu çalışmada MÖ 2. binyıl dolaylarında Mezopotamya Bölgesi’nde tahıl üretimi, depolaması ve ticareti ile bunların sosyo-kültürel yapıya etkisi incelenecektir.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Mezopotamya, Depolama, Tahıl, Ticaret

Tam Metin:

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