Çeviride Yeniden Sömürgeleştirme / Sömürgecilikten Arındırma

Susanne Klinger

Özet


Anglofon Afrika yazınında kullanılan eski İngiliz sömürgeciliğine ait yaratıcı yazın dili sömürgecilik sonrası edebiyat içinde fazlasıyla ilgi görmüş olsa da bu benimsenen kurgusal edebiyatın ve dilbilimsel açıdan melez söylemin baskın bir Avrupa diline çevrildiğinde ortaya çıkanlar hakkında günümüze kadar çok az çalışma yapılmıştır. Özellikle bu durumun ideolojik çıkarımları üzerine fazla çalışma yapılmamış olmasının yanında çeviribilim alanında bu konuyla ilgili yapılan az sayıdaki çalışmanın ise, hem kaynak metinde hem de çeviride akıcı olmayan stratejilerin egzotikleştirme ve devamında klişeleştirme eğiliminin göz ardı edilmesi sebebiyle, kaynak metnin akıcı dil stratejilerini metni yeniden sömürgeleştirerek bastırdığı görülmektedir. Çevirinin, kültürler arası bir köprü olmak şöyle dursun, ‘algılanan klişeler üzerinde hak iddaa ettiği durumlarda ayırıcı bir hal alma” potansiyeline sahip olduğu (Carbonell i Cortés, 1996; 83) fikrinden yola çıkarak - ki bu bağlamda, erek metnin kaynak kültürden aldığı ve erek kültür için şekillendirdiği basmakalıp imgeleri kalıcı hale getirdiği durumlarda metnin yeniden sömürgeleştirilmiş olduğu söylenebilir – bu çalışma, ne metinsel akıcılığa ilişkin stratejilerin, ne de metinsel akıcılığın olmadığı stratejilerin kendi başlarına metni yeniden sömürgeleştirebileceğini veya sömürgecilikten arındırabileceğini tartışmaktadır. Bunun yerine bu çalışma, hem kaynak metinde bulunan benimsenmiş yaratıcı dilin ve dilbilimsel olarak melez sayılan öğelerin daha detaylı ve farklılaştırılmış analizinin, hem de akıcı olmayan bir dil stratejisi uygulandığında erek metinde ortaya çıkacak etkinin incelenmesi gerektiğini savunmaktadır. Böyle bir inceleme olmadan, sömürgecilik sonrası metinlerin çevirilerinin yeniden sömürgeleştirmeye yatkın olup olmadığı, varsayılan yeniden sömürgeleştirmenin arkasında yatan sebepleri ortaya çıkartıp çıkartmadığı ve en önemlisi de bu çevirilerin ticari yayınevleri için çalışan bir çevirmen için ne tür gerçekçi çeviri stratejilerini ele alıp alamayacağı gibi konularda sonuçlara varmak imkansızdır. Dahası bu tür bir analiz süreci, bu varsayılan yeniden sömürgeleştirme eğilimini engelleyecek stratejileri belirlemek amacıyla çevirmenlik eğitiminin çevirmen adaylarını yönlendirebilmesi ve bu şekilde de çeviride yeniden sömürgeleştirme yöntemlerinin altında yatan kuralları değiştirilebilmesi için gereklidir.


Anahtar Kelimeler


edebi çeviri; sömürgecilik sonrası yazın; dilbilimsel hibridite; sömürgecilikten arındırma; yeniden sömürgeleştirme

Tam Metin:

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